The global trade of Indian pulses for all regions has witnessed a steady growth rate in the last decade, with the maximum growth in export and import quantity assigned to African and American regions respectively. The import market for Indian pulses has been gradually moving away from developing to developed nations over the years. The competitive advantage of India in the trade-in pulses is evident from the high export prices of all major pulses as compared to the import prices.
For much of the global population, pulses are a vital source of proteins and minerals. To increase the public awareness about the nutritional value of pulses and their contribution to the livelihood of many small farmers, the UN General Assembly declared the year 2016 as “the International Year of Pulses”. The demand for pulses increases every year. Despite the increased global demand for pulses, the global pulses productivity remains low.
Organic Pulses Worldwide Consumption:
Worldwide, pulses share only five percent of total protein consumption in the global diet. However, at the country level, pulses’ contribution to diets is much higher with the figure reaching 40% in some countries. Moreover, pulses contain different nutrients such as calcium and iron that also add to their growing popularity among consumers. The intake of pulses improves the immunity of the body and helps fight against deficiencies of minerals and vitamins. Thus, pulses play an important role in fighting malnutrition. Therefore, it is quite imperative that we include pulses in our daily diet.
Global Pulses Production Overview:
Globally, the pulses production, area, and yield grew drastically in the 1980s, but, it stagnated in the 1990s. In the mid-2000s, the growth rate of production of pulses again picked up. In the past three decades, the pulses yield per hectare grew from 550 kilograms per hectare to 901 kilograms per hectare. At the same time, the global cereal yields grew from 1500 kilograms per hectare to 4000 kilograms per hectare.
Regional Pulses Production:
Regionally, the pulses production has diversified over a period of time, with many new regions getting started in the growth of pulses. In 1981-1983, Asia’s contribution to pulses is 51.3% of total world pulses production, which declined to 45.5% by 2013. In the same period, Europe’s share declined from 20.1% to 8.8%. As far as Latin America is concerned, the share fell from 11.4 % to 9.3%. However, North America’s share increased from 3.6% to 9.9% in the same period. Africa’s share grew from 12.7 % to 22.3%, and Oceania also witnessed an increase from 0.9% to 4.3%.
Main Pulses Producers:
Pulses are mainly grown in the regions of Asia, Europe, Oceania, North America, Africa, and Latin America. Overall, there are nearly 173 countries in the world that grow pulses. The top pulses producing countries are:
India is the largest producer and consumer of pulses in the world. It contributes nearly 25% of the global pulses production. Pulses account for nearly 20% of the area under the food grains and account for nearly seven to ten percent of the total food production of the country.
Indian Pulses Growth Rate:
India has made a remarkable journey in the growth rate of Indian pulses. The production of organic pulses increased in the last 15 years in the country. From 13.38 million MT in 2005-06 to 25.58 million MT during 2020-21, the production of pulses increased with a growth rate of 91% or a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 4.42%.
The main states producing organic Indian pulses are Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana and Bihar. India grows almost every legume/pulse. However, the major Indian pulses are listed below:
- Bengal Gram (Desi Chick Pea / Desi Chana)
- Black Matpe (Urad / Mah / Black Gram)
- Pigeon Peas (Arhar / Toor / Red Gram)
- Lentils (Masoor)
- Green Beans (Moong Beans)
- Chick Peas (Kabuli Chana)
- Red Kidney Beans (Rajma)
- White Peas (Matar)
- Black Eyed Peas (Lobiya)
Indian Pulses Export & Digitalization:
Despite being the largest consumer of pulses in the world, India exports pulses to various countries. In FY 2020-21, India exported 296,169.83 MT of pulses to the world. The government is taking various steps to increase pulses production in the country. To increase the export value of pulses, several steps were being initiated as well. Moreover, the leveraging technology is helping the exporters of pulses to expand their businesses across the world.
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