Construction Material TMT Steel

TMT Bars Manufacturing Process and Types

TMT Bars Manufacturers

The TMT bars steel industry is the cornerstone of the modern economy. The health of the economy can be easily gauged by how well its steel industry is doing. Some of the top steel producers in the world are the USA, China, EU, Russia, India, Indonesia, etc. With the evolution of technology, the steel industry went through its share of change for good.

TMT steel bars have become a preferred choice for builders and developers because of their numerous benefits. TMT bars are used extensively in making buildings, slabs, beams, columns and all other kinds of structures. TMT Bars Manufacturers have been making the most of the rapid demand over the last decades. So what exactly is TMT steel bars and how is it prepared?

TMT bars are essentially prepared by using a special metallurgical process called “Thermo Mechanical treatment”. The Thermo-mechanical treatment further consists of 3-steps that are as following: Quenching, self tempering and atmospheric cooling. The quality of TMT bars is dependent on 3 factors- the quality of raw materials, quality rolling mill providing uniform and proper shape for all bars and quality system for quenching and tempering. TMT bars have been technically approved by Bureau of India standards making them suitable for construction and building projects. Raw materials used in the manufacturing process are iron ore, coal and dolomite. The raw materials are piled up recovered and mixed in the required proportion. The steps of thermo-mechanical treatment have been listed below:

  1. Quenching: The hot-rolled bars released from finished mills are made to enter the water spray system known as THERMEX system. The top manufacturing process uses THERMEX technology that cools down the outer core of TMT bars to ensure ductility of the bars. The process helps in forming a martensitic rim while the core remains hot.
  2. Self Tempering: Once out of the THERMEX quenching box, the core of the TMT bars remains hot compared to the surface allowing the heat to flow from the core to the surface. This causes tempering of the outer martensitic layer forming a structure called tempered martensite.
  3. Atmospheric cooling: TMT bars get ready for atmospheric cooling after the self-tempering process. The cooling is performed on the cooling bed at a normal temperature. As a result, the core turns into a ferrite-pearlite structure.

Normal and conventional steel bars contain poor materials that can be harmful to the strength of the structure in the long run. TMT Bars Bulk Trading has been on the rise for the past decades. Use of the latest variety and types of TMT bars is recommended. TMT bars essentially fall under 4 grades or types based on composition. A few of the grades have been listed below:

a. Fe-415 grade: Fe-415 grade is used for small-scale construction jobs and projects. It is highly cost-effective and ductile in nature. The TMT bar can be easily bent into the most complex shapes making it an ideal choice for small-load constructions. Chemical compositions of the grade are as follows: Carbon-0.30%, Sulphur-0.06%, Phosphorus-0.06% and Sulphur+Phosphorus-0.110%. The mechanical properties of the grade are minimum yield strength- 415N/sq.mm, Ultimate tensile strength-485N/sq.mm, Elongation-14.5%, Ration (UTS/YS)>1.10%. The grade finds application in houses, residential homes and structures. High uniform elongation allows it to be used in earthquake-prone areas.

b. Fe-500 grade: This grade is generally regarded as the standard for TMT bars. It offers great seismic stability and ductility. Chemical compositions of the grade are as follows: Carbon-0.30%, Sulphur-0.055%, Phosphorus-0.055% and Sulphur+Phosphorus-0.105%. The mechanical properties of the grade are minimum yield strength- 500N/sq.mm, Ultimate tensile strength-545N/sq.mm, Elongation-12%, Ration (UTS/YS)>1.08%. These bars are used extensively in large residential, commercial and multi-story projects.
c. Fe-600 grade: It is the strongest TMT grade and is used in heavy-duty infrastructure projects like bridges, industrial projects, marine facilities, etc. The bars offer high tensile strength, less overall consumption and ensure slighter steel congestion within the reinforcement.

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